ChristianIconography.Info

The purpose of this site is to support the study of Christian iconography at the beginner's level. Please note that this mission is of an academic, not religious, nature. There is no connection between ChristianIconography.Info and any religious organization.

The site was prepared by Richard Stracke, assisted by Claire Stracke, for the Department of English and Foreign Languages at Augusta University. Dr. Stracke is Emeritus Professor of English at Augusta U., and Mrs. Stracke is a veteran of Davidson Fine Arts School and of several projects like this one. Augusta University, known from 2012 to 2015 as Georgia Regents University, was formed from the merger in 2012 of what had been the Medical College of Georgia and Augusta State University. Both institutions trace their origins to the early 19th century.

The site is by no means finished. Construction will continue through the next several years. However, with thousands of images and dozens of texts, we hope it may be able to serve your purposes at the present time.

In the centuries covered by this study the Latin Vulgate was the sole accepted text of the Bible, so when we quote scripture in English we use the Douay-Rheims translation of the Vulgate rather than a modern translation, except when rendering proper names. (For example, to avoid confusion we substitute "Elijah" for D-R's latinate "Elias.")

I will be happy to answer inquiries of an academic or scholarly nature, but please remember that this is a secular site and I am not prepared to engage in discussion of the merits of any religion or sect. The address is dickstracke@yahoo.com.

Many thanks to Don Ho for his fabulous Notepad++ code editor and its many thoughtful features. I'll never use wysiwyg again!

WORKS CITED
(links to online resources are underlined)

Acta Sanctorum. Ed. John Bolland et al. 65 vols. Brussels, 1643-1925. The Christian Iconography website has references to the following volumes of the Acta Sanctorum:

Acts of Andrew Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2017-02-15.

Acts of John. Online at The Gnosis Archive, retrieved 2017-02-11.

Acts of Peter. In Schneemelcher, 271-321. Also in Elliott (retrieved 2015-02-09). Complete online copy at Early Christian Writings (retrieved 2015-02-09).

Acts of Timothy. Ed. Hermann Usener. Bonn: Typis Caroli Georgi vniv. typogr., 1877. Online copy at Google Books. Also in Migne, Patrologia Graeca V, 1361-66. Both retrieved 2015-04-09.

Alcuin, Sequentia de Sancto Michaele. Online copy at Vicifons.

Aldhelm. Sancti Aldhelmi Opera Quae Extant. Ed. J. A. Giles. Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1844. Online copy at Internet Archive.

Ambrose, On the Mysteries and the Treatise on the Sacraments by an Unknown Author, trans. T. Thompson, ed. with Introduction and Notes by J.H. Strawley (New York: Macmillan, 1919). Online copy at Online Library of Liberty, retrieved 2015-05-15.

Amico di Milano Olivetano, D. Bernardo Maria. Vita di Santa Francesca Romana. Venice: Alvise Pavino, 1710. Online copy at Google Books.

Analecta Bollandiana. Past volumes are online at Hathi Trust (A "Friend" account is required but easy to sign up for.), and at Brepols Online (fee-based).

Analecta Franciscana. Volume 3 (1897) is online at this address.

Andrén, Anders, Kristina Jennbert, and Catharina Raudvere, eds. Old Norse Religion in Long-term Perspectives: Origins, Changes, and Interactions. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, 2006.

The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior. Selections in Schneemelcher, 460-61. Complete text in Schaff online.

Aramburu de la Cruz, Don Manuel Vicente. Historia Chronologica de la Santa, Angelica, y Apostolica Capilla de Nuestra Señora del Pilar. Zaragoza: Imprenta del Rey, 1766. Online copy at Google Books.

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Ascension of Isaiah, The. Tr. M. A. Knibb. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Ed. James H. Charlesworth,(New York: Doubleday, 1985), 143-176. Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2014-01-23.

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Baluze, Etienne, and J. D. Mansi. Miscellanea. 4 vols. Lucca: 1764. Online copies of volumes one, two, three, and four at Google Books, retrieved 2014-08-24.

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Bayerische StaatsBibliothek. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Online copy retrieved 2013-12-02. Works at this site include the Vita Eligii Episcopi Noviomagensis and a Latin Life of Bavo.

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Beal, Jane. Illuminating Moses: A History of Reception from Exodus to the Renaissance. Boston: Brill, 2014. Parts of this book are available from Google Books at this address (retrieved 2014-08-16).

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Benson, Larry D., ed. The Riverside Chaucer. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

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Bevington, David. Medieval Drama. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Ed. Albertus Colunga and Laurentius Turrado. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1965. The Latin text is also available online at Bible Gateway: From the list of versions next to the search field, select "Latina: Biblia Sacra Vulgata." (You may be prompted to select whether you want the "apocryphal" books included in your search. You should say yes.)

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The Canons of the Council in Trullo. Online copy of the English translation at Documenta Catholica Omnia, drawn from copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Both retrieved 2014-04-19.

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Carillo, Charles M., and Thomas J. Steele. A Century of Retablos. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2007.

Cartlidge, David R., and J. Keith Elliott. Art and the Christian Apocrypha. New York: Routledge, 2001.

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The Catholic Encyclopedia. Ed. Charles G. Herberman, Edward A. Pace, Conde B. Pallen, et al. 15 vols. New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1914. Online copies: in book form at Google Books, searchable files of individual articles at New Advent, both retrieved 2013-12-17.

Catholic Online, retrieved 2014-09-04.

Cavallucci, Agostino. Vita Della B. Rita da Cassia. Siena: Matteo Florimi, 1610. Available online at Google Books, retrieved 2015-03-11.

Cawley, A. C. The Wakefield Pageants in the Towneley Cycle. Manchester, G.B.: Manchester University Press, 1958. (For an e-text of the Second Shepherds' Play, see Ernest Rhys, Everyman and Other Old Religious Plays at this address at Project Gutenberg.)

Cepari, Virgilio. Life of Saint Aloysius Gonzaga. Tr. Francis Goldie, S. J. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1891. Online copy at Google Books.

Laurence, Richard, tr. The Book of Enoch. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, 1883. Available online in book form at Google Books and in html at this address, both retrieved 2016-11-25. A translation by R. H. Charles is also available through booksellers.

Chalmers, Alexander. General Biographical Dictionary. London, 1814. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2017-07-31.

Chatzidakis, Manolis, and Gerry Walters. "An Encaustic Icon of Christ at Sinai." The Art Bulletin, vol. 49, no. 3, 1967, pp. 197–208., Retrieved online from www.jstor.org/stable/3048469, 2017-02-19.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Second Nun's Prologue and Tale. Online at L. D. Benson, The Geoffrey Chaucer Page, retrieved 2015-10-18.

Cicatelli, Sanzio. Vita di San Camillo de Lellis. Ed. Pantaleone Dolera. Rome: Marini, 1837. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2015-10-14. (First published 1615.)

Clayton, Mary. The Old English Lives of St. Margaret. Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Cockayne, Oswald, ed. Seinte Marherete: The Meiden ant Martyr. London: Trüner, 1866 (Early English Text Society). Online copy at Internet Archive, retrieved 2014-12-03.

Colgrave, Bertram, tr. The Life of Saint Guthlac by Felix New York: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

Collijn, Isak. Iconographia Birgittina Typographica. Upsala and Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1915. Online copy at Internet Archive, retrieved 2015-10-05. Hard copies are available at the New York Public Library and the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto.

"Common of One Martyr." At iBreviary, retrieved 2014-09-03.

"Common Symbols." Website of Lourdes University, Ohio (retrieved 2013-12-13).

Congregation of the Mission. Website of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians), retrieved 2015-05-09.

Cook, Albert S., ed. Judith: An Old English Epic Fragment. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1888. Online copy at Hathi Trust Digital Catalog, retrieved 2014-05-13.

Coren, Stanley. The Intelligence of Dogs: A Guide to the Thoughts, Emotions, and Inner Lives. New York: Free Press, 1994.

Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451), Extracts from the Acts, online at New Advent, retrieved 2017-02-19.

"Cronarmerina - Come Eravamo." Web page at the site Cronarmerina, retrieved 2017-02-09.

The Croÿ Hours. Online copy available at the Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée Nationale, Paris, retrieved 2015-03-02.

Dado of Rouen, Life of St. Eligius. Tr. J. McNamara. Online copy at Internet Medieval Sourcebook, retrieved 2015-10-30. Also in Head, 137-67.

Daley, Brian E., Tr. On the Dormition of Mary: Early Patristic Homilies. Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1998.

Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul International Project Services. "Who We Are." Online at the IPS website. Posted 2015, retrieved 2015-05-09.

Dawes, Elizabeth, tr. Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St. Daniel the Stylite, St. Theodore of Sykeon, and St. John the Almsgiver. Yonkers, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2017 (paper). From the 1948 London edition the Internet Medieval Sourcebook has online copies of the sections on "St. John the Almsgiver, Daniel the Stylite and St. Theodore of Sykeon.

"The Death of Pilate, Who Condemned Jesus." In Roberts and Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans), vol. 8. Online copies: one in Schaff, another at New Advent (both retrieved 2015-04-25).

Deimling, Hermann. The Chester Plays. 2 vols. Online copy of the plays available at the Chester Mystery Plays site, retrieved 2014-07-30.

Delcol, Elío. "Assumption Church, Windsor, Ontario: A Brief History." Flier available in the church; same text available at the Assumption Church website.

Delehaye, Hippolyte. Les légendes grecques des saints militaires. Paris: Picard, 1909. Online copy at the Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-12-17.

Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf. Ravenna in Late Antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Available in part online at Google Books (retrieved 2013-09-27).

De Montzey, Charles. Life of the Venerable John Eudes (London: Thomas Baker, 1883). Online copy (scanned, not proofread) at Archive.org.

Deperis, Paolo, et. al. "S. Mauro e S. Eleuterio vescovi martiri de Parenzo." Atti e memorie della società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 14 (1898), 1-129. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-07-25.

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De Romestin, H. and E., tr. Of the Duties of the Clergy (De Officiis), in Some of the Principal Works of St. Ambrose. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdsmans, 1955. Online copy at CCEL, retrieved 2014-05-21.

Didron, Adolphe Napoléon, Christian Iconography. Tr. Margaret Stokes. 2 volumes. London: George Bell, 1907. Online copy of volume 2 at Archive.Org (retrieved 2015-02-17).

"Did the Church declare that St. Christopher is a myth?" Online at Catholic Answers (retrieved 2013-12-02).

Di Francesco, Carla. Pomposa Abbey and Museum. Codigoro, Italy: Museo Pomposiano, 2002.

Dominguez, Francisco Atanasio. The Missions of New Mexico, 1776. Tr. Eleanor B. Adams and Fray Angelico Chavez. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012.

Dreves, Guido Maria. Reimgebete und Leselieder des Mittelalters. Siebente Folge. Leipzig: Reisland, 1905.

Dreves, Guido Maria, and Clemens Blume. Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi. 54 vols. Leipzig: Reisland, 1886-1922. Online copy at Hathi Trust Digital Library, retrieved 2016-11-08.

Drogo of Sint-Winoksbergen, The Life of St. Godelieve. Online copy in Acta Sanctorum, July vol. 2, 402-409. English translation in Head 359-373 (with introduction and bibliography).

Dronke, Peter, ed. Nine Medieval Latin Plays. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Parts of this text are available from Google Books (retrieved 2014-08-21).

Dryden, John. "A Song for Saint Cecilia's Day." Online at Bartleby.com (retrieved 2013-12-02).

Duchesne, Louis. "La Légende de Sainte Marie-Madeleine." Annales du Midi: V (1893), xvii, 1-33. Online copy at Persée, retrieved 2017-06-30.

Duchesne, Louis. Le Liber Pontificalis: Texte, Introduction et Commentaire. 2 vols. Paris: Ernest Thorin, 1886. Online copy of volume I and of volume II at Internet Archive, both retrieved 2014-06-05.

Duchet-Suchaux, Gaston, and Michel Pastoureau. The Bible and the Saints. Paris: Flammarion, 1994.

Dudley, Martin R. "Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages." In Heffernan and Matter, 193-218.

Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. "West Apse Frescoes." Web page retrieved 2017-05-12.

Durandus, William. The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, with an Introductory Essay by John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb. 3rd edition. London: Gibbings, 1906. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-10-30.

Easter Vigil Readings: For the Anglican Communion, see The Lessons Appointed for Use on The Great Vigil of Easter. These are the same as the Roman Catholic readings, which may be found along with the Exultet on this page at CatholicCulture.org. (Both sites retrieved 2014-08-07.)

Eliot, T. S. Four Quartets. London: Faber and Faber, 1976. The four quartets are "Burnt Norton," "East Coker," "The Dry Salvages," and "Little Gidding." An online copy is at Coldbacon.com(retrieved 2016-10-12).

Les Enluminures. Commercial website selling medieval manuscripts. Home page, Text manuscripts index page (both retrieved 2014-02-18). Essay describing a MS. with Pseudo-Eusebius of Cremona's letter on the death of St. Jerome: no longer online.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Online selections at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-09).

Erhardt, Michelle A. "The Magdalene as Mirror: Trecento Franciscan Imagery in the Guidalotti-Rinucci Chapel, Florence." In Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris, Mary Magdalene: Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2012), 21-44.

Eugippius. The Life of St. Severinus. Tr. George W. Robinson. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2017-01-23.

Eusebius Pamphilus, Historia Ecclesiastica, translated as:

  • Ecclesiastical History. Tr. Christian Frederick Crusé. New York: Stanford and Swords, 1850. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-02-14.
  • The History of the Church. Tr. Andrew Louth. London: Penguin, 1989.

Evans, Helen. "An Early Christian Sarcophagus from Rome Lost and Found." Metropolitan Museum Journal 28 (1993), 77-84. Online copy provided by the museum and JStor, retrieved 2013-12-3.

Everett, Nicholas. Patron Saints of Early Medieval Italy. Toronto, Canada: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2016.

Falcone, Niccolò Carminio, ed. Sancti Nicolai Acta Primigenia. Naples: Josephus de Bonis, 1761. Online copy at Google Books (retrieved 2004-08-21).

Falque Rey, Emma, ed. Chronica Historia Compostellana. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1988. Falque Rey has also published a Spanish translation, Historia Compostelana (Madrid: Ediciones Akal, 1994).

Farmer, David Hugh. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. 5th ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Available online to members of some public libraries: try signing in with your library card at this address (retrieved 2014-06-08).

Ferguson, Everett. "Jonah in Early Christian Art." In Niang and Osiek, 342-53.

Florez, Enrique. España Sagrada, vol. 10. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2015-05-15.

Forterre, Alexandra, et al. Croatie: Le Guide Vert. Paris: Amaury de Valroger, 2009.

Fraser, J., tr. "The Passion of St. Christopher." Revue Celtique 34 (1913), 307-325. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2015-10-19. Additional online copy posted 9/1999 by David Woods, retrieved 2015-10-09.

Freeman, Philip. The Principles of Divine Service: an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church. Oxford, England: J. Parker, 1871. Online copy at Villanova University Library's Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-12-3.

"Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua." Online at Web Gallery of Art, retrieved 2014-03-05.

Frizzell, Lawrence E., and J. Frank Henderson. "Jews and Judaism in the Medieval Latin Liturgy." In Heffernan and Matter, 167-92.

Fuchs, Linda Møskeland. "Iconographic Structure: Recognizing the Resurrected Jesus on the Vatican Jonah Sarcophagus." In Romaine, 45-70.

Gallonio, Antonio. The Life of St. Philip Neri. Tr. Jerome Bertram. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press, 2005. Selections available online at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-17).

Garnett, James M., tr. Elene; Judith; Athelstan, or the Fight at Brunanburh; Byrhtnoth, or the Fight at Maldon; and the Dream of the Rood. Boston: Athenaeum, 1911. Online copy at Project Gutenberg, retrieved 2014-05-13.

Gasquet, Francis Aidan. A Life of Pope St. Gregory the Great: Written by a Monk of the Monastery of Whitby. Westminster, England: Art and Book Company, 1904. Online copy at Google Books.

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Gelasius I. Decretals. In Migne, Patrologia Latina, LIX, 157-164 (retrieved 2015-10-20). English translation by Ernst von Dobschütz at The Tertullian Project, retrieved 2015-10-20.

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Gertrude of Helfta. Legatus Divinae Pietatis. English translation: Margaret Winkworth, The Herald of Divine Love (New York: Paulist Press, 1993). Online: Text in Latin at Monastic Matrix, text in Latin at IntraText.com, facsimile of 1590 edition in Latin at Google Books, French translation at Google Books. (All sites retrieved 2013-12-28.)

Gibson, Edmund, and John Cumming. A Preservative Against Popery. 15 vols. London, 1849.

Giorgi, Rosa. Saints in Art. Ed. Stefano Zuffi. Tr. Thomas Michael Hartmann. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.

Giles, J. A., tr. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Bell, 1914. Online copy available at Archive.org, retrieved 2017-05-09.

Gittens, Peter.Magistra Apostolorum in the writings of Rupert of Deutz : an investigation into the usage of this Marian title in Rupert's Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles. Dayton, Ohio: International Marian Research Institute, 1996.

The Gospel of Nicodemus. In Schneemelcher, I, 506-526. Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2016-04-26.

Strabo, Walafridus [attrib.]. Biblia Sacra cum Glossa Ordinaria. 5 vols. Venice, 1603. Online copy at The Lollard Society, retrieved 2015-06-14. Also see Migne's edition, below.

Godefroy, Théodore, ed. Le Cérémonial françois. Paris: S. and G. Cramoisis, 1649. Online copy available at Google Books, retrieved 2014-05-30.

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Graesse, Th. Legenda Aurea. Dresden and Leipzig: Libraria Arnoldiana, 1846.

Gregory of Tours. Historia Francorum. Available online at Vicifons, retrieved 2015-03-02. English translation: The History of the Franks. Tr. Lewis Thorpe. London: Penguin, 1974. English translation available online at Fordham University's Medieval Sourcebook, retrieved 2015-03-17.

Gregory of Tours. Glory of the Martyrs. Tr. Raymond Van Dam. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1988.

Gregory Thaumaturgus. The Works of Gregory Thaumaturgus, Dionysus of Alexandria, and Archelaus. Tr. S. D. F. Salmond. Edinburgh: Clark, 1871. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2015-11-17.

Gregory the Great. Dialogues. Ed. Roger Pearse. Online: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2014-07-24.

Gregory the Great. Homiliae in Evangelia:

  • The most recent critical edition (not reviewed by me) is Gregorivs Magnvs, Homiliae in Evangelia, ed. Raymond Étaix. (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 1999, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 141). 
  • Migne's edition of the Homilies is in Pat. Lat. LXXVI,1075-1312, online copy available through Documenta Catholica Omnia, retrieved 2014-05-04.
  • English translation: David Hurst, Gregory the Great: Forty Gospel Homilies (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009).
  • English translation of Sermon XXXIV, on Epiphany, in CCEL, retrieved 2015-12-20.

Gregory the Great, The Life of Our Most Holy Father St. Benedict, online edition at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2015-03-17.

Grim, Edward. The Murder of Thomas Becket. Available online at Fordham University's Medieval Sourcebook, retrieved 2015-04-04.

Hayum, Andrée. The Isenheim Altarpiece: God's Medicine and the Painter's Vision. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Head, Thomas. Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Heffernan, Thomas J., and E. Ann Matter. The Liturgy of the Medieval Church. 2nd ed. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, 2005.

Die Heilig Blut Tafel (The Weingarten Triptych of the Holy Blood) Web page at Wikimedia Commons, retrieved 2017-06-26.

Hesiod. Theogony, Works and Days, Shield. Tr. Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. Online translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (1914) available at Internet Sacred Text Archive, retrieved 2015-07-20.

The Holkham Bible Picture Book. Online scan of the pages.

Hollis, Mary, and Lauren Simpson. "The Tree of Life." in The Speculum theologiae in Beinecke MS 416. Online copy at Yale Library Archive, retrieved 2016-10-14.

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