The purpose of this site is to support the study of Christian iconography at the beginner's level. Please note that this mission is of an academic, not religious, nature. There is no connection between ChristianIconography.Info and any religious organization.
The site was prepared by Richard Stracke, assisted by Claire Stracke, for the Department of English and Foreign Languages at Augusta University. Dr. Stracke is Emeritus Professor of English at Augusta U., and Mrs. Stracke is a veteran of Davidson Fine Arts School and of several projects like this one. Augusta University, known from 2012 to 2015 as Georgia Regents University, was formed from the merger in 2012 of what had been the Medical College of Georgia and Augusta State University. Both institutions trace their origins to the early 19th century.
The site is by no means finished. Construction will continue through the next several years. However, with thousands of images and dozens of texts, we hope it may be able to serve your purposes at the present time.
In the centuries covered by this study the Latin Vulgate was the sole accepted text of the Bible, so when we quote scripture in English we use the Douay-Rheims translation of the Vulgate rather than a modern translation, except when rendering proper names. (For example, to avoid confusion we substitute "Elijah" for D-R's latinate "Elias.")
I will be happy to answer inquiries of an academic or scholarly nature, but please remember that this is a secular site and I am not prepared to engage in discussion of the merits of any religion or sect. The address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
Many thanks to Don Ho for his fabulous Notepad++ code editor and its many thoughtful features. I'll never use wysiwyg again!
Acta Sanctorum. Ed. John Bolland et al. 65 vols. Brussels, 1643-1925. The Christian Iconography website has references to the following volumes of the Acta Sanctorum at the Documenta Catholica Omnia web site (retrieved 2013-12-02):
Ambrose, On the Mysteries and the Treatise on the Sacraments by an Unknown Author, trans. T. Thompson, ed. with Introduction and Notes by J.H. Strawley (New York: Macmillan, 1919). Online copy at Online Library of Liberty, retrieved 2015-05-15.
Amico di Milano Olivetano, D. Bernardo Maria. Vita di Santa Francesca Romana. Venice: Alvise Pavino, 1710. Online copy at Google Books.
Analecta Franciscana. Volume 3 (1897) is online at this address.
Andrén, Anders, Kristina Jennbert, and Catharina Raudvere, eds. Old Norse Religion in Long-term Perspectives: Origins, Changes, and Interactions. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, 2006. Though not available as an e-book, the volume can be searched at Google Books (retrieved 2016-05-16).
Arnald of Sarrant. Chronicle of the Twenty-Four Generals of the Order of Friars Minor. Tr. Noel Muscat, O.F.M. Malta: TAU Franciscan Communications, 2010 (retrieved 2013-12-02).
Ascension of Isaiah, The. Tr. M. A. Knibb. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Ed. James H. Charlesworth,(New York: Doubleday, 1985), 143-176. Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2014-01-23.
Aurelius Augustine. Confessions. Tr. Albert C. Outler. London: SCM Press, 1955. Online copy available at Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
Aurelius Augustine. Oeuvres Complètes. 135 vols. Paris: Librairie de Louis Vivès, 1873. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2016-05-19.
"The Avenging of the Savior." In Roberts and Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans), vol. 8. One online copy in Schaff and another at New Advent (both retrieved 2015-04-25).
Baby Names Hub. Web site, retrieved 2015-08-29.
Bacci, Pietro Giacomo, The Life of St. Philip Neri. Tr. F. W. Faber. London: Richardson, 1847. Online copy at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-17).
Bartal, Ruth. "Medieval Images of Sacred Love: Jewish and Christian Perceptions." Assaph: Studies in Art History 2 (1996), 93-110. Online copy of this issue of the journal, retrieved 2015-03-03.
Baluze, Etienne, and J. D. Mansi. Miscellanea. 4 vols. Lucca: 1764. Online copies of volumes one, two, three, and four at Google Books, retrieved 2014-08-24.
Bataillard, Ch. "L'Oie Réhabilitée." In Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Caen (Caen: F. LeBlanc-Hardel, 1865). Online copy at La Bibliothèque Electronique de Lisieux, retrieved 2014-06-16.
Beal, Jane. Illuminating Moses: A History of Reception from Exodus to the Renaissance. Boston: Brill, 2014. Parts of this book are available from Google Books at this address (retrieved 2014-08-16).
Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. Online copy in English at Fordham University's Medieval Sourcebook, another copy online in English at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, both retrieved 2014-01-05.
Venerabilis Bedae Opera quae Supersunt Omnia. Ed. J. A. Giles. 12 vols. London: Whittaker, 1844. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-12-13.
Benedictine Sisters of Priscilla. Catacombs of Priscilla. (Official website of the Catacombs of Priscilla, retrieved 2015-03-03.) In the Italian-language version of the site see "Visita la Catacomba," for descriptions of selected images. An English version of the page is available but has less information (retrieved 2015-11-28).
Berlin, Gail Ivy. "Like a Duck from a Falcon": Moses in Middle English Biblical Literature." In Beal, 263-304.
Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Ed. Albertus Colunga and Laurentius Turrado. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1965. The Latin text is also available online at Bible Gateway: From the list of versions next to the search field, select "Latina: Biblia Sacra Vulgata." (You may be prompted to select whether you want the "apocryphal" books included in your search. You should say yes.)
Bleda, Jaime. Vida y Milagros del Glorioso S. Isidro Labrador. Madrid: Tomas Iunti, 1622. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2012-01-27.
Boguslawsky, Alexander. "The Assumption (Dormition) of the Virgin." Online page at Rollins University, posted 1998-2005, retrieved 2017-04-11.
Bokenham, Osborn. A Legend of Holy Women. Tr. Sheila Delany. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992. Original Middle English text: Eugen Kölbing. Altenglische Bibliothek. Heilbronn: Gebr. Henninger, 1883. Online copy retrieved 2013-11-18.
Bomgardner, D. L. The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. London: Routledge, 2000. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-11-30.
Boone, Jon. "Saint Praxedis: Missing the Mark." Online at The Vermeer Newsletter. Posted 2002-07-11, retrieved 2015-02-21.
Breviarium Romanum: Ex decreto Sacros[ancti] Conc[ilii] Trid[entini] Restitutum. Rome: Typis Vaticanis, 1632. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-09-03.
Budge, E. A. W., tr. The Martyrdom and Miracles of Saint George of Cappadocia: The Coptic Texts. London: D. Nutt, 1888. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-17.
Caffin, Charles H. "Painting and the Word." Putnam's Magazine, III:3 (December 1907), 259-73. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-08-03.
Byzantine Legacy. "Church of Hagia Euphemia." Web page retrieved 2017-05-12.
Campbell, Thomas P. "Liturgical Drama and Community Discourse." In Heffernan and Matter, 565-587.
Cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada. Website Home Page, retrieved 2015-10-27.
The Catholic Encyclopedia. Ed. Charles G. Herberman, Edward A. Pace, Conde B. Pallen, et al. 15 vols. New York: Encyclopedia Press, 1914. Online copies: in book form at Google Books, searchable files of individual articles at New Advent, both retrieved 2013-12-17.
Catholic Online, retrieved 2014-09-04.
Cavallucci, Agostino. Vita Della B. Rita da Cassia. Siena: Matteo Florimi, 1610. Available online at Google Books, retrieved 2015-03-11.
Cawley, A. C. The Wakefield Pageants in the Towneley Cycle. Manchester, G.B.: Manchester University Press, 1958. (For an e-text of the Second Shepherds' Play, see Ernest Rhys, Everyman and Other Old Religious Plays at this address at Project Gutenberg.)
Cepari, Virgilio. Life of Saint Aloysius Gonzaga. Tr. Francis Goldie, S. J. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1891. Online copy at Google Books.
Laurence, Richard, tr. The Book of Enoch. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, 1883. Available online in book form at Google Books and in html at this address, both retrieved 2016-11-25. A translation by R. H. Charles is also available through booksellers.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Second Nun's Prologue and Tale. Online at L. D. Benson, The Geoffrey Chaucer Page, retrieved 2015-10-18.
Cicatelli, Sanzio. Vita di San Camillo de Lellis. Ed. Pantaleone Dolera. Rome: Marini, 1837. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2015-10-14. (First published 1615.)
Cockayne, Oswald, ed. Seinte Marherete: The Meiden ant Martyr. London: Trüner, 1866 (Early English Text Society). Online copy at Internet Archive, retrieved 2014-12-03.
Collijn, Isak. Iconographia Birgittina Typographica. Upsala and Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1915. Online copy at Internet Archive, retrieved 2015-10-05. Hard copies are available at the New York Public Library and the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto.
Congregation of the Mission. Website of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians), retrieved 2015-05-09.
Dawes, Elizabeth, tr. Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St. Daniel the Stylite, St. Theodore of Sykeon, and St. John the Almsgiver. Yonkers, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2017 (paper). From the 1948 London edition the Internet Medieval Sourcebook has online copies of the sections on "St. John the Almsgiver, Daniel the Stylite and St. Theodore of Sykeon.
"The Death of Pilate, Who Condemned Jesus." In Roberts and Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans), vol. 8. Online copies: one in Schaff, another at New Advent (both retrieved 2015-04-25).
Delcol, Elío. "Assumption Church, Windsor, Ontario: A Brief History." Flier available in the church; same text available at the Assumption Church website.
Delehaye, Hippolyte. Les légendes grecques des saints militaires. Paris: Picard, 1909. Online copy at the Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-12-17.
Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf. Ravenna in Late Antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Available in part online at Google Books (retrieved 2013-09-27).
De Montzey, Charles. Life of the Venerable John Eudes (London: Thomas Baker, 1883). Online copy (scanned, not proofread) at Archive.org.
Deperis, Paolo, et. al. "S. Mauro e S. Eleuterio vescovi martiri de Parenzo." Atti e memorie della società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 14 (1898), 1-129. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-07-25.
De Romestin, H. and E., tr. Of the Duties of the Clergy (De Officiis), in Some of the Principal Works of St. Ambrose. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdsmans, 1955. Online copy at CCEL, retrieved 2014-05-21.
Didron, Adolphe Napoléon, Christian Iconography. Tr. Margaret Stokes. 2 volumes. London: George Bell, 1907. Online copy of volume 2 at Archive.Org (retrieved 2015-02-17).
"Did the Church declare that St. Christopher is a myth?" Online at Catholic Answers (retrieved 2013-12-02).
Dryden, John. "A Song for Saint Cecilia's Day." Online at Bartleby.com (retrieved 2013-12-02).
Duchesne, Louis. Le Liber Pontificalis: Texte, Introduction et Commentaire. 2 vols. Paris: Ernest Thorin, 1886. Online copy of volume I and of volume II at Internet Archive, both retrieved 2014-06-05.
Dudley, Martin R. "Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages." In Heffernan and Matter, 193-218.
Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. "West Apse Frescoes." Web page retrieved 2017-05-12.
Durandus, William. The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, with an Introductory Essay by John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb. 3rd edition. London: Gibbings, 1906. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-10-30.
Easter Vigil Readings: For the Anglican Communion, see The Lessons Appointed for Use on The Great Vigil of Easter. These are the same as the Roman Catholic readings, which may be found along with the Exultet on this page at CatholicCulture.org. (Both sites retrieved 2014-08-07.)
Eliot, T. S. Four Quartets. London: Faber and Faber, 1976. The four quartets are "Burnt Norton," "East Coker," "The Dry Salvages," and "Little Gidding." An online copy is at Coldbacon.com(retrieved 2016-10-12).
Les Enluminures. Commercial website selling medieval manuscripts. Home page, Text manuscripts index page (both retrieved 2014-02-18). Essay describing a MS. with Pseudo-Eusebius of Cremona's letter on the death of St. Jerome: no longer online.
Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Online selections at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-09).
Erhardt, Michelle A. "The Magdalene as Mirror: Trecento Franciscan Imagery in the Guidalotti-Rinucci Chapel, Florence." In Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris, Mary Magdalene: Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2012), 21-44.
Eugippius. The Life of St. Severin. Tr. George W. Robinson. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2017-01-23.
Evans, Helen. "An Early Christian Sarcophagus from Rome Lost and Found." Metropolitan Museum Journal 28 (1993), 77-84. Online copy provided by the museum and JStor, retrieved 2013-12-3.
Farmer, David Hugh. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. 5th ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Available online to members of some public libraries: try signing in with your library card at this address (retrieved 2014-06-08).
Ferguson, Everett. "Jonah in Early Christian Art." In Niang and Osiek, 342-53.
Florez, Enrique. España Sagrada, vol. 10. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2015-05-15.
Fraser, J., tr. "The Passion of St. Christopher." Revue Celtique 34 (1913), 307-325. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2015-10-19. Additional online copy posted 9/1999 by David Woods, retrieved 2015-10-09.
Freeman, Philip. The Principles of Divine Service: an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church. Oxford, England: J. Parker, 1871. Online copy at Villanova University Library's Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-12-3.
"Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua." Online at Web Gallery of Art, retrieved 2014-03-05.
Frizzell, Lawrence E., and J. Frank Henderson. "Jews and Judaism in the Medieval Latin Liturgy." In Heffernan and Matter, 167-92.
Fuchs, Linda Møskeland. "Iconographic Structure: Recognizing the Resurrected Jesus on the Vatican Jonah Sarcophagus." In Romaine, 45-70.
Gallonio, Antonio. The Life of St. Philip Neri. Tr. Jerome Bertram. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press, 2005. Selections available online at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-17).
Garnett, James M., tr. Elene; Judith; Athelstan, or the Fight at Brunanburh; Byrhtnoth, or the Fight at Maldon; and the Dream of the Rood. Boston: Athenaeum, 1911. Online copy at Project Gutenberg, retrieved 2014-05-13.
Gasquet, Francis Aidan. A Life of Pope St. Gregory the Great: Written by a Monk of the Monastery of Whitby. Westminster, England: Art and Book Company, 1904. Online copy at Google Books.
Gertrude of Helfta. Exercitia Spiritualia. English translation: Gertrud Jarron Lewis, Gertrud the Great of Helfta: Spiritual Exercises (Collegeville, Minnesota: Cistercian Publications c/o Liturgical Press, 1989).
Gertrude of Helfta. Legatus Divinae Pietatis. English translation: Margaret Winkworth, The Herald of Divine Love (New York: Paulist Press, 1993). Online: Text in Latin at Monastic Matrix, text in Latin at IntraText.com, facsimile of 1590 edition in Latin at Google Books, French translation at Google Books. (All sites retrieved 2013-12-28.)
Gittens, Peter.Magistra Apostolorum in the writings of Rupert of Deutz : an investigation into the usage of this Marian title in Rupert's Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles. Dayton, Ohio: International Marian Research Institute, 1996.
Goss, Vladimir. "Radovan and Homer: a Note on the Epic Style in Medieval Art." Online copy of conference paper posted by the University of Rijeka.
Gregory of Tours. Historia Francorum. Available online at Vicifons, retrieved 2015-03-02. English translation: The History of the Franks. Tr. Lewis Thorpe. London: Penguin, 1974. English translation available online at Fordham University's Medieval Sourcebook, retrieved 2015-03-17.
Gregory Thaumaturgus. The Works of Gregory Thaumaturgus, Dionysus of Alexandria, and Archelaus. Tr. S. D. F. Salmond. Edinburgh: Clark, 1871. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2015-11-17.
Hesiod. Theogony, Works and Days, Shield. Tr. Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. Online translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (1914) available at Internet Sacred Text Archive, retrieved 2015-07-20.
The Holkham Bible Picture Book. Online scan of the pages.
Hollis, Mary, and Lauren Simpson. "The Tree of Life." in The Speculum theologiae in Beinecke MS 416. Online copy at Yale Library Archive, retrieved 2016-10-14.
Horstmann, Carl, ed. The Early South English Legendary. London: Trübner,1887. Online copy at Cornell University Library's Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-11-21.
Hurtado, Larry W. "The Staurogram in Early Christian Manuscripts: The Earliest Visual Reference to the Crucified Jesus?" In Thomas J. Kraus and Tobias Nicklas, New Testament Manuscripts: Their Text and Their World. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Online copy at ERA, a resource of the University of Edinburgh library.
Iconografía de San Hermenegildo. Online essay at the website of the Archdiocese of Madrid, retrieved 2015-12-28.
International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies. A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title. Oxford University Press, 2009. Revised 2014. Online copy retrieved 2015-11-29.
Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Saints' Lives. Online at Fordham University, retrieved 2013-11-21.
Jameson, Anna. Sacred and Legendary Art. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1898. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-11-29.
Jansen, Katherine L. "Maria Magdalena: Apostolorum Apostola." In Beverly Kienzle et al., Woman Preachers and Prophets through Two Millenia of Christianity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 57-97.
Jensen, Robin Margaret. "Nudity in Early Christian Art." In Niang and Osiek, 296-319.
Jensen, Robin Margaret. Online copy of "Witnessing the Divine," first published in Bible Review 17, no. 6 (December 2001). Retrieved 2015-12-12.
Jerome, St. (Eusebius Hieronymus Stridonensis). The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary: Against Helvidius. Tr. W. H. Fremantle et al. In Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, VI. Online copy at CCEL, retrieved 2015-12-03.
Karel, David. Dictionnaire des Artistes de Langue Française en Amérique du Nord. Quebec City, Canada: Presses Université Laval, 1992. This work is not online but is searchable from its Google Books page.
Kennedy, Charles W. Cynewulf, Elene. Cambridge, Ontario: parentheses Publications, 2000. Online copy at York University, retrieved 2014-01-07.
Krapp, George Philip and Elliott Van Kirk Dobbie. The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records. 6 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1932. Online copy at Oxford University's Woruldhord, retrieved 2014-01-07.
Kure, Henning. "Hanging on the World Tree: Man and Cosmos in Old Norse Mythic Poetry." In Andrén, 68-71.
"La Puerta de Córdoba, Lugar del Martirio de San Hermenegildo." Online essay at ABCdesevilla, retrieved 2014-01-08.
The Legend of St. Katherine of Alexandria. Ed. James Morton. London: Abbotsford Club, 1841. Online copy at Cornell University Library's Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-11-08.
Leucius Charinus (?), Acts of Andrew and Matthias: In the City of the Man-eaters. Tr. Alexander Walker. Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2014-07-22.
Long, Sarah Ann. The Chanted Mass in Parisian Ecclesiastical and Civic Communities, 1480-1540. Dissertation. Bowling Green State University, 1998. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2015-10-06.
López Ferreiro, Antonio. Historia de la santa a.m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela. 11 vols. Santiago: Imprenta del Seminario conciliar y central, 1898-1909. Online copy at Archive.org, retrieved 2014-02-10.
Luard, Henry Richards, ed. Lives of Edward the Confessor. London: Longmans, Brown, 1858. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-11-11.
Lydgate, John. The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man (Early English Text Society, extra series, 83). New York: Scribners, 1901. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-08-18.
mac Alasdair, Findlaech. "A Carpenter's Chest: Tools of the 15th Century." In The Oak: Arts and Sciences Newsletter for the Kingdom of Atlantia, No. 12. Online pdf copy at Blood and Sawdust, retrieved 2016-02-22.
Mackie, Gillian. "New Light on the So-Called Saint Lawrence Panel at the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna." Gesta 29 (1990), 54-60. Online copy at JStor, retrieved 2013-11-27.
Marcos, Juan-José. Fonts for Latin Paleography. 3rd ed., February 2011. Online "User's Manual."
Martyrdom of Ignatius, The. Online translation at New Advent, retrieved 2014-01-20.
Mattioti, Giovanni. Vita di S. Francesca Romana: Oblata dell'Ord. di. S. Benedetto. Ed. Giulio Orsino. Venice: Alessandro Polo, 1616. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-07.
Mazara, Benedetto. Leggendario Francescano. Venice: Giovanni Battista Tramontino, 1680. Online copy of Volume 2, part 2 available at Google Books, retrieved 2014-08-25.
McLachlan, Elizabeth Parker. "Liturgical Vessels and Implements," in Heffernan and Matter, 333-389.
Metropolitan Museum, Online commentary on the Campin Annunciation Triptych, retrieved 2014-12-28.
Migne, J. P. Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus. Online copy at Documenta Catholica Omnia, retrieved 2014-02-18. The Christian Iconography website has references to the following volumes/sections:
Milliner, Matthew J. "Icon as Theology: The Byzantine Virgin of Predestination." In Romaine, 73-93.
Missale ad usum insignis et praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum. Ed. Francis Henry Dickinson. London: C. J. Stewart, 1861. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-06-08.
Missale Romanum: Ex Decreto Sacrosancto Concilii Tridentini Restitutum. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 1862. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-09-03.
"Nativity of the Glorious Prophet, Forerunner and Baptist," at the Orthodox Church in America website, retrieved 2014-04-22.
Niang, Aliou Cissé, and Carolyn Osiek, ed. Text, Image, and Christians in the Graeco-Roman World: A Festschrift in Honor of David Lee Balch. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2011. Searchable parts of the book can be accessed online by way of Google Books (retrieved 2015-05-30).
Nican Mopohua (the original account of the Guadalupe miracle). In Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, A Handbook on Guadalupe (Waite Park, MN: Park Press, 1996), 193-205. Online edition in Nahuatl and English at the web site of the University of California at San Diego.
Nixon, Virginia. Mary's Mother: St. Anne in Late Medieval Europe. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. Though not entirely available online, this work can be checked for search terms at Google Books (retrieved 2013-11-20).
Nyborg, Christian. Santa Maria in Trastevere. Online at Archive.org, retrieved 2015-01-03.
Olga's Gallery (retrieved 2015-01-07). Online source of these photos:
Passio Sanctae Katharinae Alexandriensis. Online at Wikisource Latin.
The Passion of St. Christopher (BHL 1764). Tr. David Woods. Online copy retrieved 2015-10-19.
Paul the Deacon. History of the Lombards. Tr. William Dudley Foulke and Edward Peters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974. Partially available online at Google Books, retrieved 2015-03-18.
Paul the Deacon, "Ut queant laxis" (Hymn to St. John the Baptist). Online at Das Hymnarium der Hymnenschatz der Lateinischen Kirche, retrieved 2014-04-22.
Paulinus of Milan. The Life of St. Ambrose of Milan Online copy at the website of Christopher Haas, Villanova University, retrieved 2015-05-11.
Peter Comestor. Historia Scholastica. In Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus, CXCVIII, 1045-1722. Online copy of this volume at Documenta Catholica Omnia, retrieved 2015-03-03. Also online is a single volume printed in 1542, no publisher or city noted. Another location is at the edition at Vicifons. (For the Decollation of John the Baptist, see chapter lxxiii under Evangelica: p. 200 in the 1542 edition or col. 1574 in PL.)
Prudentius. Peristephanon, Carmen III: Hymnus in honorem passionis Eulaliae, Beatissimae Martyris. Online copy at The Latin Library. English Translation by Robert J. Baker at Virginia Tech Digital Library and Archives. Both retrieved 2015-10-31.
Raymond of Capua. The Life of St. Catherine of Siena. Tr. George Lamb. Rockford, Illinois: TAN Books, 2003. Latin original online at pp. 853-959 of Acta Sanctorum, April vol. 3.
Raynaudus, Theophilus. In Symbolicam S. Antonii magni Imaginem commentatio Ghent: Bernard de Kerchove, 1659. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-02
The Recognitions of Clement, tr. Thomas Smith. In Roberts and Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1885), vol. 8. Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2015-02-13.
Romaine, James, and Linda Stratford, ed. ReVisioning: Critical Methods of Seeing Christianity in the History of Art. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2013. Preview and search available online at Google Books, retrieved 2015-06-09.
The Roman Breviary: Reformed by Order of the Holy Œcumenical Council of Trent. 4 vols. Tr. John, Marquess of Bute. London: Blackwood, 1908. Online at Archive.org are volumes One, Two, Three and Four, all retrieved 2017-05-03.
Royal BC Museum. "We Call Them Vikings." Exhibition brochure, available online at the museum's web site (retrieved 2016-05-16).
St. Sabbas the Sanctified Orthodox Monastery. Web site, retrieved 2015-03-15.
Sancta Missa: The Rubrics of the Missale Romanum 1962. Retrieved 2014-07-30. Sections referenced by our web site include the following:
Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Ciudad de. "Fiestas del Santo del 10 al 15 de mayo," "El milagro del peregrino ahoracado," and "El Gallinero." Online in the web site Santo Domingo de la Calzada, retrieved 2015-10-27.
Schaff, Philip. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. New York: Scribners, 1886-1900. Reprint ed. Alexander Roberts. Peabody Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1994. Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (retrieved 2014-02-18). The Christian Iconography website has references to the following selections:
Sheingorn, Pamela, tr. The Book of Sainte Foy. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-05.
Sienkiewicz, Henryk. Quo Vadis? Tr. Jeremiah Curtin. Boston: Little, Brown, 1897. Republished New York: J. M. Dent, 1947 and New York: Heritage Press, 1960. Online copy at Google Books.
Smith, E. Baldwin. Early Christian Iconography and the School of Ivory Carvers in Provence. Princeton University Press, 1918. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-11-04.
Smith, William, and Samuel Cheetham. A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. London: John Murray, 1880. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-02.
Sommers, Kris. "The Journey to Life." Web page at the site The Mother of God: Art Celebrates Mary. Dayton, Ohio: The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute, 2011. Retrieved 2015-06-08.
"SS. Isidore and Maria Torribia Parish," online site hosted by ABCParishes.org, retrieved 2015-03-03.
Stiver, Stanley L. and David J. Stiver. Cross and Crucifix.
The Story of Perpetua. Tr. Alexander Walker. Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2014-12-13.
Sugano, Douglas, ed. The N-Town Plays. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, 2007. Online copy available at University of Rochester's TEAMS Middle English Texts Series, retrieved 2014-07-30.
Sulpitius Severus. Dialogue II: Concerning the Virtues of St. Martin. Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
Symeon Metaphrastes. Vita Sanctorum. In Migne, Patrologiae Grecae Cursus Completus, vols. 114-116.
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