Saint Lawrence: The Iconography
St. Lawrence was a deacon in Rome who was martyred in the mid-3rd century. One of the earliest images of a non-biblical saint is a 4th-century medallion showing him tortured on a gridiron like the one pictured above and in this stained glass window.1 At the end of the 4th century he was celebrated in Prudentius' Peristephanon, which was followed in most details by subsequent works including the Golden Legend. It is in Prudentius that we first encounter the saint's supposed comment to the torturers, "This part of my body has been burned long enough; turn it round and try what your hot god of fire has done."2
The earliest portrait of the saint that I have actually seen is a 5th-century fresco that portrays him as a youthful man, tonsured and wearing the dalmatic of a deacon. The youth, the tonsure, and the dalmatic will stay with him through sixteen more centuries of religious art, with only a few exceptions (example without a dalmatic, example with lush hair).
The fresco painter apparently did not include a gridiron. Some of the plaster has fallen away at the bottom, so we cannot be sure. But by the 6th century, the saint is strongly associated with the gridiron, as in the first image at left. In the ensuing centuries, it is by far his most common attribute (example). In most portraits it is shown in a diminutive size as a mere attribute, and in one painting it is reduced to just a grid pattern on the dais beneath Lawrence's throne.
In the Golden Legend the executioners also apply red-hot pitchforks to Lawrence's body, so this becomes another attribute, sometimes used instead of the gridiron (example).
Another attribute is based on two of the miracles ascribed to St. Lawrence. One involved a heavy golden chalice that the emperor Henry II had given to the Church of St. Lawrence in Eichstätt. When Henry died and his misdeeds were piled up on one side of the scale, the devils hoped to gain his soul. But then St. Lawrence put the chalice on the other side, and Henry was safe. In anger, one of the devils broke off a piece of the chalice, which he referred to as a bowl. In the other miracle a deacon in St. Lawrence's church in Milan dropped a crystal chalice. It broke into pieces, but upon the deacon's prayers St. Lawrence reasssembled it as good as new. Owing to these legends, in some images the saint holds a chalice-like bowl, sometimes with a broken-off piece, as in the third image on the right. Another influence on the chalice attribute is Augustine's remark that St. Lawrence served the church in Rome and "it was there that he administered the sacred chalice of Christís blood; there that he shed his own blood for the name of Christ."
In the 6th-century mosaic, above right, Lawrence carries a processional cross. Crosses are so common in saints' portraits that we might pass over this one in silence, but it may be significant that processional and hand crosses appear so often in images of St. Lawrence (example). In Prudentius, Lawrence stood weeping at the foot of the cross on which Pope Sixtus was crucified. From the cross the Pope said, "I go before you, my brother; you too will follow me three days from now."
In the Golden Legend before Pope Sixtus was arrested he entrusted the Church's funds to Lawrence (image), who then distributed them to the poor (image). Hearing something about funds, the authorities ordered Lawrence to bring them the Church's treasure. They were not amused when he came back with a motley assortment of poor and handicapped people and announced that these were the Church's real treasure (image), so Decius ordered him put to a slow death. This part of the legend is also found in Prudentius and in St. Ambrose's De Officiis, II, 28, ¶141.
One 15th-century St. Lawrence altarpiece with six narrative panels omits the key episode of the presentation of the poor to the Emperor Decius but includes an unusual scene of the passing of Sixtus modeled after Dormition images.
WITH OTHER SAINTS
St. Lawrence is sometimes seen grouped with other deacon martyrs such as St. Stephen (example). In various other paintings he will be found with St. Marina, Saints Cosmas and Damian, and Saints Dominic and Augustine.
Prepared in 2014 by Richard Stracke, Emeritus Professor of English, Augusta University. Revised 2016-10-16.
SHOWN ABOVE Jacopo Palma the Younger, The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, 1581-82 (See description page)