The purpose of this site is to support the study of Christian iconography at the beginner's level. To access all the contents, please visit the home page. The site's mission is of an academic, not religious, nature. There is no connection between ChristianIconography.Info and any religious organization.

The site was prepared by Richard Stracke, assisted by Claire Stracke, for the Department of English and Foreign Languages at Augusta University. Dr. Stracke is Emeritus Professor of English in the Department, and Mrs. Stracke is a veteran of Fine Arts School and of several projects like this one. Augusta University, known from 2012 to 2015 as Georgia Regents University, was formed from the merger in 2012 of what had been the Medical College of Georgia and Augusta State University. Both institutions trace their origins to the early 19th century.

In the centuries covered by this study the Latin Vulgate was the sole accepted text of the Bible, so when we quote scripture in English we use the Douay-Rheims translation of the Vulgate rather than a modern translation, except when rendering proper names. (For example, to avoid confusion we substitute "Elijah" for D-R's latinate "Elias.")

I will be happy to answer inquiries of an academic or scholarly nature, but please remember that this is a secular site and I am not prepared to engage in discussion of the merits of any religion or sect. The address is

Many thanks to Don Ho for his fabulous Notepad++ code editor and its many thoughtful features. I'll never use wysiwyg again!


(links to online resources are underlined)

pseudo-Abdias, Historiæ Apostolicæ, Auctore Abdia. In The Uncanonical Gospels, Ed. John A. Giles (London, D. Nutt, 1852), 256-453. Online copy at (See Els Rose, "Abdias Scriptor Vitarum Sanctorum Apostolorum? The Collection of Pseudo-Abdias Reconsidered" at Brepols Online for a modern discussion of this edition.)

Acta Sanctorum. Ed. John Bolland et al. 65 vols. Brussels, 1643-1925. The Christian Iconography website has references to the following volumes of the Acta Sanctorum:

Acts of Andrew Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2017-02-15.

Acts of John. Online at The Gnosis Archive, retrieved 2017-02-11.

Acts of Peter. In Schneemelcher, 271-321. Also in Elliott (retrieved 2015-02-09). Complete online copy at Early Christian Writings (retrieved 2015-02-09).

Acts of Timothy. Ed. Hermann Usener. Bonn: Typis Caroli Georgi vniv. typogr., 1877. Online copy at Google Books. Also in , Patrologia Graeca V, 1361-66. Both retrieved 2015-04-09.

Aitken, Ian. "Formalism and realism: Henry V (Laurence Olivier, 1944; Kenneth Branagh, 1989)." Critical Survey 3 (1991), 260-68.

Alcuin, Sequentia de Sancto Michaele. Online copy at Vicifons.

Aliferis, Laurence Terrier. "Joseph christophore dans la Fuite d'Egypte: transmission d'un schéma iconographique spécifique à travers le Moyen Age. Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 76 (2016), 164-192.

Aldhelm. Sancti Aldhelmi Opera Quae Extant. Ed. J. A. Giles. Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1844. Online copy at Internet Archive.

Ambrose and "an unknown author," On the Mysteries and On the Sacraments. Ed. J. H. S. Rawley. Tr. T. Thompson Online copy at Online Library of Liberty, retrieved 2022-04-18.

Ambrose, Concerning Virgins. Tr. H. and E. DeRomestin. In Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. X (Edinburgh: Clark). Online copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2019-04-02.

Ambrose. "The Finding of SS. Gervasius and Protasius." Online copy at the Medieval Sourcebook.

Ambrose, On the Mysteries and the Treatise on the Sacraments by an Unknown Author, trans. T. Thompson, ed. with Introduction and Notes by J.H. Strawley (New York: Macmillan, 1919). Online copy at Online Library of Liberty, retrieved 2015-05-15.

Amico di Milano Olivetano, D. Bernardo Maria. Vita di Santa Francesca Romana. Venice: Alvise Pavino, 1710. Online copy at Google Books.

Analecta Bollandiana. Hathi Trust has volumes 1-26 and limited access to volumes 28, 30, and 32. See the following links:

Analecta Franciscana. Volume 3 (1897) is online at this address.

Andrén, Anders, Kristina Jennbert, and Catharina Raudvere, eds. Old Norse Religion in Long-term Perspectives: Origins, Changes, and Interactions. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, 2006.

The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior. Selections in Schneemelcher, I, 460-61. Complete text in Schaff online.

Angeli, Diego. Le Chiese di Roma. Società Editrice Dante Alighieri, 1902. Online copy at Internet Archive, retrieved 2020-04-10.

Aramburu de la Cruz, Don Manuel Vicente. Historia Chronologica de la Santa, Angelica, y Apostolica Capilla de Nuestra Señora del Pilar. Zaragoza: Imprenta del Rey, 1766. Online copy at Google Books.

Arbellot, Abbé. Vie de Saint Léonard. Paris: Lecoffre, 1863. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2018-06-02.

Arnald of Sarrant. Chronicle of the Twenty-Four Generals of the Order of Friars Minor. Tr. Noel Muscat, O.F.M. Malta: TAU Franciscan Communications, 2010 (retrieved 2013-12-02). Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2020-12-01.

Ascension of Isaiah, The. Tr. M. A. Knibb. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Ed. James H. Charlesworth,(New York: Doubleday, 1985), 143-176. Online copy at Early Christian Writings, retrieved 2014-01-23.

Aurelius Augustine. Against Faustus. Online copy at

Aurelius Augustine. The City of God. Tr. Vernon J. Bourke. New York: Doubleday, 1950.

Aurelius Augustine. Confessions. Tr. Albert C. Outler. London: SCM Press, 1955. Online copy available at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, retrieved 2020-12-01.

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Aurelius Augustine, "Exposition on Psalm 54(55)." Online copy at New Advent, retrieved 2019-01-05.

Aurelius Augustine, "Exposition on Psalm 62(63)." Online copy at New Advent, retrieved 2019-01-05.

Aurelius Augustine. Expositions of the Psalms. 6 vols. Hyde Park, NY: New City Press, 2001. An older translation of the Expositions is available at this url at New Advent, retrieved 2019-01-14.

Aurelius Augustine. On the Trinity. Online at New Advent, retrieved 2015-04-11.

Aurelius Augustine. Oeuvres Complètes. 135 vols. Paris: Librairie de Louis Vivès, 1873. Online copy at, retrieved 2016-05-19.

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"The Avenging of the Savior." In Roberts and Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans), vol. 8. One online copy in Schaff and another at New Advent (both retrieved 2015-04-25).

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Bacci, Pietro Giacomo, The Life of St. Philip Neri. Tr. F. W. Faber. London: Richardson, 1847. Online copy at Google Books (retrieved 2015-02-17).

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Barber, Richard. Bestiary: Being an English Version of Bodley Library MS. Bodley 764. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1999.

Bartal, Ruth. "Medieval Images of Sacred Love: Jewish and Christian Perceptions." Assaph: Studies in Art History 2 (1996), 93-110. Online copy of this entire issue of the journal, retrieved 2015-03-03. (You will need to scroll down to page 93.)

Medieval Lore from Bartholomew Anglicus [De Proprietatibus Rerum]. Tr. Robert Steele. London: De La More Press, 1905. Online copy at Project Gutenberg, retrieved 2018-01-22.

Baluze, Etienne, and J. D. Mansi. Miscellanea. 4 vols. Lucca: 1764. Online copies of volumes one, two, three, and four at Google Books, retrieved 2014-08-24.

Bartram, John. "Cleopatra VII and Rome." Online at, retrieved 2020-12-01.

Bataillard, Ch. "L'Oie Réhabilitée." In Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Caen (Caen: F. LeBlanc-Hardel, 1865). Online copy at La Bibliothèque Electronique de Lisieux, retrieved 2014-06-16.

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Beal, Jane. Illuminating Moses: A History of Reception from Exodus to the Renaissance. Boston: Brill, 2014. Parts of this book are available from Google Books at this address (retrieved 2014-08-16).

Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. Online copy in English at Fordham University's Medieval Sourcebook, another copy online in English at Christian Classics Ethereal Library, both retrieved 2014-01-05.

Venerabilis Bedae Opera quae Supersunt Omnia. Ed. J. A. Giles. 12 vols. London: Whittaker, 1844. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-12-13.

Bellet, Charles-Félix. L'Ancienne Vie de Saint Martial et le Prose Rythmée. Paris: Picard, 1897. Online copy at Google Books.

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Benedictine Sisters of Priscilla. Catacombs of Priscilla. (Official website of the Catacombs of Priscilla, retrieved 2015-03-03.) In the Italian-language version of the site see "Visita la Catacomba," for descriptions of selected images. An English version of the page is available but has less information (retrieved 2015-11-28).

Bennett, Judith M. "Death and the Maiden." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern History, vol. 42, no. 2, 2012, pp. 269-305.

Benson, Larry D., ed. The Riverside Chaucer. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Bercot, David W., Ed. A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1998.

Berlin, Gail Ivy. "Like a Duck from a Falcon": Moses in Middle English Biblical Literature." In Beal, 263-304.

Bevington, David. Medieval Drama. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Ed. Albertus Colunga and Laurentius Turrado. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1965. The Latin text is also available online at Bible Gateway: From the list of versions next to the search field, select "Latina: Biblia Sacra Vulgata." (You may be prompted to select whether you want the "apocryphal" books included in your search. You should say yes.)

Blake, N. F. “The Biblical Additions in Caxton's 'Golden Legend'.” Traditio, vol. 25, 1969, pp. 231–247. JSTOR, Accessed 14 Mar. 2021.

Bleda, Jaime. Vida y Milagros del Glorioso S. Isidro Labrador. Madrid: Tomas Iunti, 1622. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2012-01-27.

Bledsoe, Jenny C. "Practical Hagiography: James of Voragine's Sermones and Vita on St Margaret of Antioch." Medieval Sermon Studies, 57 (2013), 29-48.

Bleiberg, Edward. Tree of Paradise: Jewish Mosaics from the Roman Empire. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum, 2005.

Bloch, Abraham P. The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies. New York: Ktav, 1980. Limited online access at this address at, retrieved 2021-03-25.

Block, K. S. Ludus Coventriae [The "N-Town" play]. Oxford University Press, 1922. Online copy available at HathiTrust.

Boehm, Barbara Drake and Jiri Fajt, eds. Prague, the Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).

Boguslawsky, Alexander. "The Assumption (Dormition) of the Virgin." Online page at Rollins University, posted 1998-2005, retrieved 2017-04-11.

Boito, Camillo, ed. The Basilica of St. Mark IIlustrated from the Points of View of Art and History. Tr. William Scott. Venice, 1888.

Bokenham, Osborn. A Legend of Holy Women. Tr. Sheila Delany. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992. Original Middle English text: Eugen Kölbing. Altenglische Bibliothek. Heilbronn: Gebr. Henninger, 1883. Online copy retrieved 2013-11-18.

Bomgardner, D. L. The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. London: Routledge, 2000. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-11-30.

Bonnell, John K. "The Serpent with a Human Head in Art and in Mystery Play." American Journal of Archaeology 21 (1917), 255-91. Online copy available at JStor, retrieved 2015-07-17.

Bonner, Campbell. "The Trial of Saint Eulalia." American Journal of Philology 41 (1920), 253-64. Online copy at jStor.

The Book of the Infancy of the Savior, in Santos Otero, Evangelios Apócrifos.

Boone, Jon. "Saint Praxedis: Missing the Mark." Online at The Vermeer Newsletter. Posted 2002-07-11, retrieved 2015-02-21.

Bradley, Horace H. The Infancy and Childhood of Jesus. Online, retrieved 2020-11-03.

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Brock, Sebastian P., and Susan Ashbrook Harvey. Holy Women of the Syrian Orient. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1987.

Brooke, Rosalind. The Image of St Francis: Responses to Sainthood in the Thirteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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Brunel, Clovis. Les Miracles de Saint Privat. Paris: A. Picard, 1912. Online copy at Open Library, retrieved 2015-03-02.

Brunet, Ester. The Bible According to Tintoretto. Venice: Marcianum Press, 2012.

Budge, E. A. W., tr. The Martyrdom and Miracles of Saint George of Cappadocia: The Coptic Texts. London: D. Nutt, 1888. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2013-12-17.

Budge, E. A. W., tr. "The Fifteenth Day of Khadar." In Ethiopic Synaxarium at Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Saints' Lives, ed. David Woods. Retrieved 2019-02-26.

Bühler, Curt F. “The Apostles and the Creed.” Speculum, vol. 28, no. 2, 1953, pp. 335–339. JSTOR, Accessed 14 Mar. 2021.

Burke, Jill. "Sex and Spirituality in 1500s Rome: Sebastiano del Piombo's 'Martyrdom of Saint Agatha.'" The Art Bulletin 88 (2006), 482-85. Online copy at jStor, retrieved 2022-09-23.

Butler's Lives of the Saints. 4 vols. Ed. Herbert Thurston and Donald Attwater. New York: P. J. Kennedy and Sons, 1963. Online copy at, retrieved 2019-11-12. (This work is a "modernized" abbreviation of Alban Butler's 18th-century hagiographic compilation. I find it useful for my purposes because it is concise and has bibliographies, but I should note that some have objected to it as unfaithful to the original.)

Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Primitive Fathers, Martyrs, and other Principal Saints. Edinburgh: J. Moir, 1798-99.

Byzantine Legacy. "Church of Hagia Euphemia." Web page retrieved 2017-05-12.

Cabrera, Alfonso. "Virgen del Socorro," Base de datos digital de Iconografía Medieval. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Web page hosted by the University of Madrid, retrieved 2022-01-24.

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Campbell, Thomas P. "Liturgical Drama and Community Discourse." In Heffernan and Matter, 565-587.

Camps y Monserrat Pagès, Jordi, et. al. Guia Visual Arte Románico. Barcelona: Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, 2004.

The Canons of the Council in Trullo. Online copy of the English translation at Documenta Catholica Omnia, drawn from copy at Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Both retrieved 2014-04-19.

Cantilène de Sainte Eulalie, La. Online copy, ed. Joseph Reisdoerfer, retrieved 2015-10-31.

Capystranus. Anonymous, title page now lost. Published by Wynkyn de Worde, 1530. Available through ProQuest.

Carillo, Charles M., and Thomas J. Steele. A Century of Retablos. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2007.

Cartlidge, David R., and J. Keith Elliott. Art and the Christian Apocrypha. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Cassell, Anthony K. "Santa Lucia as Patroness of Sight: Hagiography, Iconography, and Dante." Dante Studies (No. 109, 1999). Online copy at jStor, retrieved 2022-10-5.

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Cepari, Virgilio. Life of Saint Aloysius Gonzaga. Tr. Francis Goldie, S. J. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1891. Online copy at Google Books.

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Christian, William A. Local Religion in Sixteenth-Century Spain. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Christian Prayer: The Liturgy of the Hours. New York: Catholic Book Publishing Company, 1976.

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Colgrave, Bertram, tr. The Life of Saint Guthlac by Felix New York: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

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"Common of One Martyr." Online copy at, retrieved 2020-12-01 (originally at iBreviary).

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Cusack, Carole M. "Hagiography and History: the Legend of Saint Ursula." In Carole M. Cusack and Peter Oldmeadow, This Immense Panorama: Studies in Honour of Eric J. Sharpe, (Sydney: School of Studies in Religion, University of Sydney, 1999), 89-104.

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Davidson, Clifford, ed. The York Corpus Christi Plays. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, 2011.

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Dawes, Elizabeth, tr. Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St. Daniel the Stylite, St. Theodore of Sykeon, and St. John the Almsgiver. Yonkers, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2017 (paper). From the 1948 London edition the Internet Medieval Sourcebook has online copies of the sections on "St. John the Almsgiver, Daniel the Stylite and St. Theodore of Sykeon.

Daly, Robert. Apocalyptic Thought in Early Christianity. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2009.

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Delehaye, Hippolyte. Les légendes grecques des saints militaires. Paris: Picard, 1909. Online copy at the Internet Archive, retrieved 2013-12-17.

Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf. Ravenna in Late Antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Available in part online at Google Books (retrieved 2013-09-27).

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Deperis, Paolo, et. al. "S. Mauro e S. Eleuterio vescovi martiri de Parenzo." Atti e memorie della società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 14 (1898), 1-129. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2014-07-25.

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De Romestin, H. and E., tr. Of the Duties of the Clergy (De Officiis), in Some of the Principal Works of St. Ambrose. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdsmans, 1955. Online copy at CCEL, retrieved 2014-05-21.

Deshman, Robert. "Another Look at the Disappearing Christ." The Art Bulletin, 79 (1997), 518-46.

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Didron, Adolphe Napoléon, Christian Iconography. Tr. Margaret Stokes. 2 volumes. London: George Bell, 1907. Online copy of volume 2 at Archive.Org (retrieved 2015-02-17).

"Did the Church declare that St. Christopher is a myth?" Online at Catholic Answers (retrieved 2013-12-02).

Di Francesco, Carla. Pomposa Abbey and Museum. Codigoro, Italy: Museo Pomposiano, 2002.

Dines, Ilya. "The Hare and its Alter Ego in the Middle Ages." Reinardus, 17 (2004), 73-88. Online copy at, retrieved 2019-01-13.

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Dominguez, Francisco Atanasio. The Missions of New Mexico, 1776. Tr. Eleanor B. Adams and Fray Angelico Chavez. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012.

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Dreves, Guido Maria. Reimgebete und Leselieder des Mittelalters. Siebente Folge. Leipzig: Reisland, 1905.

Dreves, Guido Maria, and Clemens Blume. Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi. 54 vols. Leipzig: Reisland, 1886-1922. Online copy at Hathi Trust Digital Library, retrieved 2016-11-08.

Drogo of Sint-Winoksbergen, The Life of St. Godelieve. Online copy in Acta Sanctorum, July vol. 2, 402-409. English translation in Head 359-373 (with introduction and bibliography).

Dronke, Peter, ed. Nine Medieval Latin Plays. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Parts of this text are available from Google Books (retrieved 2014-08-21).

Dryden, John. "A Song for Saint Cecilia's Day." Online at (retrieved 2013-12-02).

Duchesne, Louis. "La Légende de Sainte Marie-Madeleine." Annales du Midi: V (1893), xvii, 1-33. Online copy at Persée, retrieved 2017-06-30.

Duchesne, Louis. Le Liber Pontificalis: Texte, Introduction et Commentaire. 2 vols. Paris: Ernest Thorin, 1886. Online copy of volume I and of volume II at Internet Archive, both retrieved 2014-06-05.

Duchet-Suchaux, Gaston, and Michel Pastoureau. The Bible and the Saints. Paris: Flammarion, 1994.

Dudley, Martin R. "Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages." In Heffernan and Matter, 193-218.

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Durandus, William. The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, with an Introductory Essay by John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb. 3rd edition. London: Gibbings, 1906. Online copy at Google Books, retrieved 2016-10-30.

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Dutton, Edward, and Herbert L. Kessler. The Poetry and Paintings of the First Bible of Charles the Bald. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

Dzon, Mary, and Theresa M. Kenney, The Christ Child in Medieval Culture: Alpha es et O. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.

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