On the Aurelian Way in Rome, St. Pancras, Martyr. During the reign of Diocletian he achieved martyrdom by decapitation. – Roman Martyrology for May 1
In the Golden Legend, after Pancras was orphaned his uncle took him to Rome. There both were baptized by Pope Cornelius (image), but then the uncle died and the Emperor Diocletian offered to adopt the boy – if he would renounce his faith. Pancras, who was only 14, replied with a bold speech against idolatry (image), for which he was beheaded (image).
The most basic type of St. Pancras image is like the one at right: a beardless youth in boots, a tunic, and something like a toga points to Heaven with his right index finger and holds in his left hand a palm branch and a book. Tbe book will have the words VENITE AD ME ET DABO VOBIS OMNIA BONA, "Come to me and I shall give you all good things." No such phrase is found in scripture, nor in the vitae and other memorials of Pancras collected in the Acta Sanctorum and the Golden Legend. It appears to be a combining of Matthew 11:28 ("Come to me, all you that labour…and I will refresh you) with 24:47 (where the master puts the faithful servant super omnia bona, "in charge of all good things").
In a second type of image St. Pancras will also have a sword, the implement of his martyrdom, as in the second picture at right. That picture also exemplifies a practice in the Renaissance of putting him in sumptuous contemporary dress.
In the third type the saint is erroneously portrayed as a soldier, with the sword serving as an emblem of his profession, as in the third picture. This error may be due to a misreading of earlier images with the sword, especially as his feast day is shared with the military saints Nereus and Achilleus.
St. Pancras is beardless in all his images, but as the second and third pictures show, there is a tendency to make him look rather more than 14 years of age.
Prepared in 2014 by Richard Stracke, Emeritus Professor of English, Augusta University. Revised 2019-08-19.